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Lists

Lists in Blade are sequence types that is used to hold zero or more values in a single storage. Each item in a list is assigned a number (index) starting from zero (0) for the first item. Blade Lists are comma (,) separated list of different values of different or same type. For example, a list can contain only number, another can contain a mixture of numbers and strings and yet another can contain lists as well.

Creating a list is very simple. Simply type a left square bracket ([), followed by the values in the list if any, all separated by commas and close it all with a right square bracket (]).

For example:

%> [1, 2, 3]
[1, 2, 3]
%> ['Lane', 21, nil]
[Lane, 21, nil]
%> [['Lois', 36], ['Clark', 27]]
[[Lois, 36], [Clark, 27]]

A list can contain any mixture of data types.

List Operations


Like Strings, Lists support lots of operations too, but Lists generally support fewer operators. List supports additions, slicing, iteration and methods too.

Working with Lists is a breeze. For example, adding two lists together looks like this:

%> [1, 2] + [3, 4]
[1, 2, 3, 4]
%> ['Hello'] + ['World']
[Hello, World]

Lists follow the same indexing and slicing rules as Strings so for breviety, we’ll not go into the whole academic stuffs anymore.

Just for a quick run-through, accessing indexes in Lists will look like this:

%> var names = ['John', 'Wick', 'III']
%> names[1]
'Wick'
%> names[-1]
'III'

And slicing Lists just like Strings will look like this:

%> var numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
%> numbers[,]
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
%> numbers[-1,]
[]
%> numbers[,3]
[1, 2, 3]
%> numbers[2,6]
[3, 4, 5, 6]
%> numbers[4,]
[5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
%> numbers[4,-2]
[5, 6, 7]

Looping thorugh Lists


Lists can be iterated using any of the looping techniques available in Blade. However, the iter and the for loop are the recommended as they will require fewer moving parts, and Lists are optimized for those looping techniques.

For example, you can use the iter loop like this:

%> var users = ['Gabriel', 'Anna', 'Cindarella']
%> iter var i = 0; i < users.length(); i++ {
..   echo users[i]
.. }
'Gabriel'
'Anna'
'Cindarella'

The above example uses the iter loop to iterate through the list. Notice how the condition uses the length() method of the list and how we accessed the current list item using the iteration variable.

We can do the same with the for loop using even fewer code schematics. For example,

%> users = ['James', 'Lucy', 'Estonia']
%> for user in users {
..   echo user
.. }
'James'
'Lucy'
'Estonia'

We can also use the while loop to iterate through a list. For example,

%> users = ['Odin', 'Parker', 'Kent']
%> var i = 0
%> while i < users.length() {
..   echo users[i]
..   i++
.. }
'Odin'
'Parker'
'Kent'

List Methods


Lists support methods operations too. Here are a list of all the methods supported by list.

list.length()
Returns the number of items in the list.

For example:

%> ['A', 'B', 'C'].length()
3
list.append(x: any)
Adds the given value x to the end of the list.

For example:

%> var a = [1,2,3]
%> a.append(4)
%> a
[1, 2, 3, 4]
list.clear()
Removes all items from the list.

For example:

%> var a = [1,2,3,4,5]
%> a
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
%> a.clear()
%> a
[]
list.clone()
Returns a new list containing all items from the list. The new list is a shallow copy of the original list. This is equivalent to list[,].

For example:

%> var a = [1, 2, 3]
%> var b = a.clone()
%> a.append(4)
%> a
[1, 2, 3, 4]
%> b
[1, 2, 3]
list.count(x: any)
Returns the number of times itesm x occurs in the list.

For example:

%> [1, 2, 1, 3, 2, 1, 1].count(1)
4
list.extend(x: list)
Updates the content of the list by appending all the contents of list x to the end of the original list in exact order. This is equivalent to list + x.

For example:

%> var a = [1, 2, 3]
%> var b = [4, 5, 6]
%> a.extend(b)
%> a
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
%> b
[4, 5, 6]
list.index_of(x: any)
Returns the zero-based index of the first occurrence of the value x in the list or -1 if the list does not contain the value x.

For example:

%> [1,2].index_of(3)
-1
%> [4,5,6,5].index_of(5)
1
list.insert(x: any, index: number)
Inserts the item x into the list at the specified index. By specifying an index of zero (list.insert(x, 0)), one can prepend the list and list.insert(x, list.length()) is equivalent to list.append(x). If the index specified is greater than list.length(), the list will be padded with nil up till the index preceeding the specified index.

For example:

%> var a = [1,2,3]
%> a.insert(4, 0)
%> a
[4, 1, 2, 3]
%> a.insert(5, a.length())
%> a
[4, 1, 2, 3, 5]
%> a.insert(6, 3)
%> a
[4, 1, 2, 6, 3, 5]
%> a.insert(7, 11)
%> a
[4, 1, 2, 6, 3, 5, nil, nil, nil, nil, nil, 7]
list.pop()
Removes the last item in a list and returns the value of that item.

For example:

%> var a = [4, 5, 6]
%> a.pop()
6
%> a
[4, 5]
list.shift([count: number])
Removed the specified count of items from the beginning of the list and returns it. If count is not specified, count defaults to 1. If one item is shifted, the method returns that item. If more than one item is shifted, the method returns a list containing the shifted items.

The square brackets ([]) around the count: number in the method definition indicates that the parameter is optional and does not mean you have to type the square brackets.

If the number of items required to be shifted exceeeds the size of the list, the list is cleared and nil is returned.

For example:

%> var a = [9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0]
%> a.shift()
9
%> a
[8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0]
%> a.shift(3)
[8, 7, 6]
%> a
[5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0]
%> a.shift(10)
%> a
[]
list.remove_at(index: number)
Removes the item at the specified index in the list and returns it. If the index is less than 0 or greater than list.length() - 1, an exception is raised.

For example:

%> var a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
%> a.remove_at(3)
4
%> a
[1, 2, 3, 5]
%> a.remove_at(6)
Unhandled Exception: list index 6 out of range at remove_at()
  StackTrace:
    <repl>:1 -> @.script()
%> a.remove_at(-1)
Unhandled Exception: list index -1 out of range at remove_at()
  StackTrace:
    <repl>:1 -> @.script()
list.remove(x: any)
Removes the first occurrence of item x from the list.

For example:

%> var a = ['Kirk', 'Tasha', 'Emily', 'Kirk']
%> a.remove('Kirk')
%> a
[Tasha, Emily, Kirk]

Notice that only the first occurrence of Kirk was removed.

list.reverse()
Returns a new list containing the items in the original list in reverse order.

For example:

%> var a = ['apple', 'mango', 'banana', 'orange', 'peach']
%> a.reverse()
[peach, orange, banana, mango, apple]
list.sort()
Sorts the items in the list in-place. Sorting in Lists follows are strict set of precedence based on the object type. The order for sorting is as follows in ascending orders:

nil, boolean, numbers, strings, ranges, lists, dictionaries, file, bytes, functions, classes and modules.

When the corresponding items in the list are of the same type, they are sorted based on their respective values according to the type. For example, the number 5 is less than 8 and as such will appear first in the sort.

For example:

%> var a  = ['A', 5, false, nil, [21, 13, 46]]
%> a.sort()
%> a
[nil, false, 5, A, [13, 21, 46]]

Notice how the boolean value preceeds the number and how the number in turn preceeds the string and the strings in turn, preceeds the list in the result. Also, note that the items of the inner list is sorted.

list.contains(x: any)
Returns true if the list contains the item x or false otherwise.

For example:

%>  ['dog', 'cat', 'wolf', 'tiger'].contains('cat')
true
%>  ['dog', 'cat', 'wolf', 'tiger'].contains('giraffe')
false
list.delete(lower: number, upper: number)
Deletes a range of items from the list starting from the lower to the upper limit and returns the number of items removed. If the lower and upper are the same, this will be equivalent to list.remove_at(lower).

For example:

%> var a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
%> a.delete(3, 6)
4
%> a
[1, 2, 3, 8, 9]
%> a.delete(1,1)  # equal upper and lower
1
%> a
[1, 3, 8, 9]
list.first()
Returns the first item in the list or nil if the list is empty.

For example:

%> ['c', 'd', 'a', 'b'].first()
'c'
list.last()
Returns the last item in the list or nil if the list is empty.

For example:

%> ['c', 'd', 'a', 'b'].last()
'b'
list.is_empty()
Returns true if the list is empty or false otherwise.

For example:

%> [1, 2].is_empty()
false
%> [].is_empty()
true
list.take(n: number)
Returns a new list containing the first n items in the list or a new copy of the list if n greater than or equals to the list.length(). If n < 0, returns list.take(list.length() - n).

For example:

%> var a = [10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20]
%> a.take(4)
[10, 11, 12, 13]
%> a.take(11) # taking more than the size of the list
[10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20]
%> a.take(-5)   # taking n < 0
[10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15]
list.get(index: number)
Returns the value at the specified index in the list. If index is outside the boundary of the list indexes (0..(list.length() - 1)), an exception is thrown. This method is equivalent to list[index].

For example:

%> [13, 14, 15, 16].get(1)
14
%> [13, 14, 15, 16].get(6)
Unhandled Exception: list index 6 out of range at get()
  StackTrace:
    <repl>:1 -> @.script()
list.compact()
Returns a new list containing the items in the original list but with all nil values removed.

For example:

%> [21, nil, 14, 'age', nil, nil, [], 11].compact()
[21, 14, age, [], 11]
list.unique()
Returns a new list containing the unique values from the original list.

For example:

%> [1, 1, 3, 5].unique()
[1, 3, 5]
list.zip(items… : list…)
Returns a list that contains the items in the original list merged with corresponding items from the individual arguments. This generates a list of length equal to the length of the original argument.

If the size of any of the arguments is less than the size of the original list, it’s corresponding entry will be nil.

For example:

%> var a = [4, 5, 6]
%> var b = [7, 8, 9]
%> [1, 2, 3].zip(a, b)
[[1, 4, 7], [2, 5, 8], [3, 6, 9]]
%> [1, 2].zip(a, b)
[[1, 4, 7], [2, 5, 8]]
%> a.zip([1, 2], [8])
[[4, 1, 8], [5, 2, nil], [6, nil, nil]]
%> [1, 2].zip([3])
[[1, 3], [2, nil]]
%> [1].zip([10, 11], [12, 13, 14])
[[1, 10, 12]]
%> [[1, 2], [3]].zip(a, b)
[[[1, 2], 4, 7], [[3], 5, 8]]
list.to_dict()
Returns a number indexed dictionary representing the list.

For example:

%> ['English', 'French', 'Spanish'].to_dict()
{0: English, 1: French, 2: Spanish}




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Copyright © 2021 Ore Richard Muyiwa. Distributed under the MIT license.